Atul Gawande, MD, MPH, is a surgeon, writer, and public health researcher. He practices general and endocrine surgery at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He is Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Samuel O. Thier Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. He is also Chairman of Lifebox, a nonprofit organization making surgery safer globally, and Executive Director of Ariadne Labs, a joint center for health systems innovation that is supporting the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), a partnership that brings together country policymakers, health system managers, practitioners, advocates and other development partners to catalyze improvements in PHC in low- and middle-income countries through better measurement and knowledge-sharing.